Revision: Fri, 27 Jan 2023 20:32:58 GMT

Query Builder Basics

The ORM provides control over generated SQL statements and functionality to set custom conditions and parameters.

Accessing Query Builder

You can get access to the query builder manually by constructing an instance of the Select object, or by using the select() method of the default repository class.

$select = $orm->getRepository(User::class)->select();

// ...

The recommended approach is to declare select statements within an entity's repository:

use Cycle\ORM\Select;

class UserRepository extends Select\Repository
    public function findActive(): Select
        return $this->select()->where('status', 'active');

Simple conditions

You can set any condition on the obtained query builder using the method where:

$select->where('status', 'active');

By default, such condition will generate statement like 'status' = "active" (value will be passed as part of the prepared statement).

To specify a custom operator call the function with 3 arguments:

$select->where('balance', '>', 100);

For between and not between conditions you can use notation with 4 arguments:

$select->where('id', 'between', 10, 20);

You can use orWhere and andWhere (identical to where) to declare more complex conditions:

$select->where('balance', '<', 100)
       ->orWhere('status', 'blocked');

Read more about complex conditions in the next section.

Short Notation

You can also specify conditions using array notation:

    'id' => ['in' => new \Cycle\Database\Injection\Parameter([1, 2, 3])],
    'status' => ['like' => 'active']

This declaration is identical to:

$select->where(function(\Cycle\ORM\Select\QueryBuilder $select) {
    $select->where('id', 'in', new \Cycle\Database\Injection\Parameter([1, 2, 3]));
    $select->where('status', 'like', 'active');

Array notation can be used to declare multiple conditions on one field:

    'id' => ['>' => 10, '<' => 100]

Using Parameters

By default, any passed value will be converted into Parameter objects internally. However, you must explicitly use Parameter while specifying array values:

$select->where('id', 'in', new \Cycle\Database\Injection\Parameter([1,2,3]));

Parameters can be used to specify a value after building the query:

$select->where('id', $id = new \Cycle\Database\Injection\Parameter(null));



Sorting and pagination

Use the methods offset, limit and orderBy to paginate or sort your entities:

$select->orderBy('id', 'DESC')->limit(1);
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