Revision: Fri, 27 Jan 2023 20:32:58 GMT

Composite keys

A composite key is a combination of two or more columns in a table that can be used to uniquely identify each row in the table when the columns are combined uniqueness is guaranteed, but when it takes individually it does not guarantee uniqueness.

Sometimes more than one attributes are needed to uniquely identify an entity. A primary key that is made by the combination of more than one attribute is known as a composite key.

Cycle ORM supports composite primary keys natively. For Cycle ORM composite keys of primitive data-types are supported, even foreign keys as primary keys are supported.

Declaration via Schema

You can use composite keys in your schema for Entity Schema::PRIMARY_KEY and for entity relations Relation::INNER_KEY, Relation::OUTER_KEY.

    User::class => [
        // ...
        Schema::PRIMARY_KEY => ['key1', 'key2'],                                // <===
        Schema::COLUMNS => [
            'key1' => 'field1',
            'key2' => 'field2',
            // ...
        Schema::RELATIONS => [
            'posts' => [
                Relation::TYPE => Relation::HAS_MANY,
                Relation::TARGET => Post::class,
                Relation::SCHEMA => [
                    Relation::CASCADE => true,
                    Relation::INNER_KEY => ['key1', 'key2'],                    // <===
                    Relation::OUTER_KEY => ['parent_key1', 'parent_key2'],      // <===
                    Relation::ORDER_BY => ['key1' => 'asc', 'key2' => 'asc'],

Declaration via annotations

use Cycle\Annotated\Annotation\Entity;
use Cycle\Annotated\Annotation\Column;
use Cycle\Annotated\Annotation\Relation\HasMany;

class Pivot
    #[Column(type: 'int', primary: true)]
    private int $postId;
    #[Column(type: 'int', primary: true)]
    private int $tagId;

class Tag 
    #[HasMany(target: Pivot::class, outerKey: ['parent_key1', 'parent_key2'])]
    private array $posts;


To find records by composite PK you have to pass array of identifiers instead of single value.

$repository = $orm->getRepository(Pivot::class);

$pivot = $repository->findByPK([
    1, // post id
    1 // tag id
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