Querying Relations

It is possible to use columns and values of entity relations while composing the query. Relation properties (columns) can be accessed using dot notation relation.property. Please note, you must use domain-specific property names; column names will be mapped automatically.

Simple Condition

To query an entity with a constraint applied to its related entity:

// find all users with published posts
$select->distinct()->where('posts.published', true);

Please note, all queried relations will be joined to the entity query. Do not forget to add the distinct option to your query while joining hasMany, manyToMany relations.

Nested relations

It is possible to filter entities using any level of relations. For example:

// find all users with posts which have approved comments
$select->distinct()->where('posts.comments.approved', true);

Please note that deepening queries will affect your performance.

Sorting and pagination

You can use method orderBy in combination with a related entity column:

$select->orderBy('posts.id', 'DESC');

Please note that the usage of limit and offset methods are only recommended in combination with distinct.

Loading Relations

Cycle ORM can pre-load most of the relation types via the load method called on select:

$select->load('posts');

The load method will automatically pick the appropriate way to load related data (either using JOIN or WHERE IN approaches). You can also use this method to load any relation level via dot notation:

$select->load('posts.comments.author');

Load with applied condition

You can load some relations partially (hasMany, manyToMany) and use DB level filtering by applying the where option:

$select->load('posts', [
    'where' => ['published' => true]
]);

Select separates filtered and loaded entities. You can use with and load methods at the same time.

$select->load('posts', [
    'where' => ['published' => true]
])
->with('posts')->where('posts.flagged', true);

Find all users with flagged posts and load all published posts.

In some cases, you can also combine joining and relation (make sure you know what are you doing). You can do that by pointing the source table alias to the load method:

$selec->with('posts',[
    'as'    => 'posts',
    'where' => ['flagged' => true'])
])->load('posts', ['using' => 'posts']);

This query will find all entities with flagged posts and load these posts within one query (make sure to set the DISTINCT). Note, this is NOT an optimization technique.

LIMIT, ORDER BY are currently not supported as fetch scope (no BC expected).

Load with filter by nested relation

Not only can you load the relation chain, but you can also filter your branches by their relations. For example, we can load all users and all user posts which have comments.

$users->load('posts', [
    'where' => ['comments.id' => ['!=' => null]]
]);

You can also use alternative notation with the additional distinct flag:

$users->load('posts', [
    'where' => function($qb) {
        $qb->distinct()->where('comments.id', '!=', null);
    }
]);

Following SQL will be generated:

SELECT
"user"."id" AS "c0", "user"."email" AS "c1", "user"."balance" AS "c2"
FROM "user" AS "user"
SELECT DISTINCT
"user_posts"."id" AS "c0", "user_posts"."user_id" AS "c1", "user_posts"."title" AS "c2"
FROM "post" AS "user_posts"
INNER JOIN "comment" AS "user_posts_comments"
    ON "user_posts_comments"."post_id" = "user_posts"."id"
WHERE "user_posts"."user_id" IN (1, 2) AND ("user_posts_comments"."id" IS NOT NULL)

Please note, the relation is joined using INNER JOIN by default. You can alter this behavior.

To find all users and load only posts without comments:

$users->load('posts', [
    'where' => function (Select\QueryBuilder $qb) {
        $qb->distinct()->with('comments', [
            'method' => Select\JoinableLoader::LEFT_JOIN]
        )->where('comments.id', '=', null);
    }
]);
SELECT
"user"."id" AS "c0", "user"."email" AS "c1", "user"."balance" AS "c2"
FROM "user" AS "user"
SELECT DISTINCT
"user_posts"."id" AS "c0", "user_posts"."user_id" AS "c1", "user_posts"."title" AS "c2"
FROM "post" AS "user_posts"
LEFT JOIN "comment" AS "user_posts_comments"
    ON "user_posts_comments"."post_id" = "user_posts"."id"
WHERE "user_posts"."user_id" IN (1, 2) AND ("user_posts_comments"."id" IS NULL)

You can also specify the join method in the primary select query. Let's try to find all users with posts without comments, and load only posts with comments for these users. We would have to use options of our relation to specifying the filter:

$users
    ->distinct()
    ->with('posts.comments', [
        'method' => Select\JoinableLoader::LEFT_JOIN,
    ])
    ->where('posts.comments.id', null)
    ->load('posts', [
        'where' => function (Select\QueryBuilder $qb) {
            $qb->distinct()->where('comments.id', '!=', null);
        }
    ])->orderBy('user.id');

And generated SQL queries:

SELECT DISTINCT
    "user"."id" AS "c0", "user"."email" AS "c1", "user"."balance" AS "c2"
FROM "user" AS "user"
INNER JOIN "post" AS "user_posts"
    ON "user_posts"."user_id" = "user"."id"
LEFT JOIN "comment" AS "user_posts_comments"
    ON "user_posts_comments"."post_id" = "user_posts"."id"
WHERE "user_posts_comments"."id" IS NULL
SELECT DISTINCT
    "user_posts"."id" AS "c0", "user_posts"."user_id" AS "c1", "user_posts"."title" AS "c2"
FROM "post" AS "user_posts"
INNER JOIN "comment" AS "user_posts_comments"
    ON "user_posts_comments"."post_id" = "user_posts"."id"
WHERE "user_posts"."user_id" IN (1, 2) AND ("user_posts_comments"."id" IS NOT NULL)

Using the load method

Alternatively you can use the load option, which accepts a closure to specify custom orderBy and other conditions:

$users
    ->distinct()
    ->with('posts.comments', [
        'method' => Select\JoinableLoader::LEFT_JOIN,
    ])
    ->where('posts.comments.id', null)
    ->load('posts', [
        'load' => function (Select\QueryBuilder $qb) {
            $qb->orderBy('id', 'DESC');
        }
    ])->orderBy('user.id');

You can combine this option with many-to-many relations to sort relations by pivot tables:

$users
   ->load('tags', [
        'load' => function (Select\QueryBuilder $qb) {
            $qb->orderBy('@.@.attached', 'DESC'); // tags.pivot.attached
        }
    ])->orderBy('user.id');
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